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美国的「黑命贵」是怎样一种情况?



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美国政治正确已经到阻碍科学发展的地步了。前两年因发现dna结构得诺奖的沃森因为种族歧视被开除了。原因是他发现黑人智商比较低,想研究这是基因因素还是环境因素造成的。呵呵。我们实验室想研究一个突变癌症基因在黑人和其他种族之间发布也被学校叫停了。

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补一个资料:

WEST AFRICA

Cameroon

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 80

Test: CPM

Ref: Berlioz, L. (1955). Etude des progressive matrices faite sur les Africains de Douala. Bulletin du Centre Etude Recherce Psychotechnique, 4, 33-44.

Equatorial Guinea

IQ: 59

Age: 10-14

N: 48

Test: WISC-R

Ref: Fernandez-Bellesteros, R., Juan-Espinoza, M., Colom, R., and Calero, M. D. (1997). Contextual and personal sources of individual differences in intelligence. In J. S. Carlson (Ed.), Advances in Cognition and Educational Practice. Greenwich, Cnn.: JAI Press.

Ghana

IQ: 67

Studies: 4

IQ: 80

Age: Adults

N: 225

Test: CF

Ref: Buj, V. (1981). Average IQ values in various European countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 168-169.

IQ: 62

Age: 15

N: 1,693

Test: CPM

Ref: Glewwe, P. and Jaccoby, H. (1992). Estimating the determinants of Cognitive Achievement in Low Income Countries. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

IQ: 65 (266)

Age: 16

N: 5,100

Test: TIMSS 2003

Ref: Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Chrostowski, S.J. (Eds.) (2004). TIMSS 2003 Technical Report. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

IQ: 67

TIMSS 2003: 266 (65)

TIMSS sum: 301

TIMSS+PIRLS sum: 304

Sum: 300

Guinea

IQ: 67

Studies: 2

IQ: 63

Age: 5-14

N: 50

Test: AAB

Ref: Nissen, H. W., Machover, S. and Kinder, E. F. (1935). A study of performance tests given to a group of native African Negro children. British Journal of Psychology, 25, 308-355.

IQ: 70

Age: Adults

N: 1,144

Test: SPM

Ref: Faverge, J. M. and Falmagne, J. C. (1962). On the interpretation of data in intercultural psychology. Psychologia Africana, 9, 22-96.

Nigeria

IQ: 69

Studies: 5

IQ: 70

Age: Children

N: 480

Test: Leone

Ref: Farron, O. (1966). The test performance of coloured children. Educational Research, 8, 42-57.

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 86

Test: SPM

Ref: Wober, M. (1969). The meaning and stability of Raven's matrices test among Africans. International Journal of Psychology, 4, 220-235.

IQ: 69

Age: 6-13

N: 375

Test: CPM

Ref: Fahrmeier, E. D. (1975). The effect of school attendance on intellectual development in Northern Nigeria. Child Development, 46, 281-285.

IQ: 79 (401)

Age: 15

N: 2,368

Test: IEA-R 1991

Ref: Elley, W. B. (1992). How in the world do students read? The Hague: IEA.

IQ: 69

ISARS: 34 (69)

Sierra Leone

IQ: 64

Studies: 2

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 122

Test: CPM

Ref: Berry, J. W. (1966). Temne and Eskimo perceptual skills. International Journal of Psychology, 1, 207-229.

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 33

Test: CPM

Ref: Binnie-Dawson, J. L. (1984). Biosocial and endocrine bases of spatial ability. Psychologia, 27, 129-151.

CENTRAL AFRICA

Democratic Republic of Congo

IQ: 65

Studies: 5

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 67

Test: SPM

Ref: Verhagen, P. (1956). Utilite actuelle des tests pour l'etude psychologique des autochones Congolese. Revue de Psychologie Appliquee, 6, 139-151.

IQ: 68

Age: 10-15

N: 222

Test: SPM

Ref: Laroche, J. L. (1959). Effets de repetition du Matrix 38 sur les resultats d'enfants Katangais. Bulletin du Centre d’etudes et Reserches Psychotechniques, 1, 85-99.

IQ: 62

Age: 8

N: 47

Test: KABC

Ref: Boivin, M. J. and Giordani, B. (1993). Improvements in cognitive performance for schoolchildren in Zaire following an iron supplement and treatment for intestinal parasites. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 18, 249-264.

IQ: 68

Age: 7-12

N: 95

Test: LABC

Ref: Boivin, M. J., Giordani, B., and Bornfeld, B. (1995). Use of the tactual performance test for cognitive ability testing with African children. Neuropsychology, 9, 409-417.

IQ: 65

Age: 7-9

N: 130

Test: KABC

Ref: Giordani, B., Boivin, M. J., Opel, B., Nseyila, D. N., and Lauer, R. E. (1996). Use of the K-ABC with children in Zaire. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 43, 5-24.

Republic of Congo

IQ: 64

Studies: 3

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 1,596

Test: SPM

Ref: Latouche, G. L. and Dormeau, G. (1956). La foration professionelle rapide en Afrique Equatoriale Francaise. Brazzaville: Centre d'Etude des Problems du Travail.

IQ: 64

Age: 17-29

N: 320

Test: SPM

Ref: Ombredane, A., Robaye, F., and Robaye, E. (1952). Analyse des resultats d'une application experimentale du matrix 38 a 485 noirs Baluba. Bulletin Centre d'etudes et Reserches Psychotechniques, 7, 235-255.

IQ: 73

Age: 8

N: 73

Test: SPM

Ref: Nkaye, H. N., Huteau, M., and Bonnet, J. P. (1994). Retest effect on cognitive performance on the Raven Matrices in France and in the Congo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 503-510.

Central African Republic

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 1,149

Test: SPM

Ref: Latouche, G. L. and Dormeau, G. (1956). La foration professionelle rapide en Afrique Equatoriale Francaise. Brazzaville: Centre d'Etude des Problems du Travail.

EAST AFRICA

Sudan

IQ: 71

Studies: 4

IQ: 69

Age: 7-16

N: 291

Test: Various

Ref: Fahmy, M. (1964). Initial exploring of the intelligence of Shilluk children. Vita Humana, 7, 164-177.

IQ: 64

Age: 6

N: 80

Test: DAMRef: Badri, M. B. (1965a). The use of finger drawing in measuring the Goodenough quotient of culturally deprived Sudanese children. Journal of Psychology, 59, 333-334.

IQ: 74

Age: 9

N: 292

Test: DAM

Ref: Badri, M. B. (1965b). Influence of modernization on Goodenough quotients of Sudanese children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 20, 931-932.

IQ: 72

Age: 8-12

N: 148

Test: SPM

Ref: Ahmed, R. A. (1989). The development of number, space, quantity, and reasoning concepts in Sudanese schoolchildren. In L. L. Adler (Ed.), Cross Cultural Research in Human Development. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Kenya

IQ: 72

Studies: 6

IQ: 69

Age: Adults

N: 205

Test: CPM

Ref: Boissiere, M., Knight, J. B., and Sabot, R. H. (1985). Earnings, schooling, ability, and cognitive skills. American Economic Review, 75,1016-1030.

IQ: 75

Age: 6-10

N: 1,222

Test: CPM

Ref: Costenbader, V. and Ngari, S. M. (2000). A Kenya standardisation of the Coloured Progressive Matrices. School Psychology International, 22, 258-268.

IQ: 69

Age: 12-15

N: 85

Test: CPM-MH

Ref: Sternberg, R. J., Nokes, C., Geissler, P. W., Prince, R., Okatcha, F., Bundy, D. A., and Grigorenko, E. L. (2002). The relationship between academic and practical intelligence: A case study in Kenya. Intelligence, 29, 401-418.

IQ: 76

Age: 7

N: 118

Test: CPM

Ref: Daley, Y. C., Whaley, S. E., Sigman, M. D., Espinosa, M. P., and Neuman, C. (2003). IQ on the rise: the Flynn effect in rural Kenyan children. Psychological Science, 14, 215-219.

IQ: 89

Age: 7

N: 537

Test: CPM

Ref: Daley, Y. C., Whaley, S. E., Sigman, M. D., Espinosa, M. P., and Neuman, C. (2003). IQ on the rise: the Flynn effect in rural Kenyan children. Psychological Science, 14, 215-219.

IQ: 63

Age: 6

N: 184

Test: KABC

Ref: Holding, P. A., Taylor, H. G., Kazungu, S. D., and Mkala, T. (2004). Assessing cognitive outcomes in a rural African population: development of a neuropsychological battery in Kilifi district. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 246-260.

Tanzania

IQ: 72

Studies: 3

IQ: 78

Age: 13-17

N: 2,959

Test: SPM

Ref: Klingelhofer, E. L. (1967). Performance of Tanzanian secondary school pupils on the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices test. Journal of Social Psychology, 72, 205-215.

IQ: 65

Age: Adults

N: 179

Test: CPM

Ref: Boissiere, M., Knight, J. B., and Sabot, R. H. (1985). Earnings, schooling, ability,and cognitive skills. American Economic Review, 75,1016-1030.

IQ: 72

Age: 11-13

N: 458

Test: WCST

Ref: Sternberg, R. J., Grigorenko, E. L., Ngorosho, D., Tantufuye, E., Mbise, A., Nokes, C., Jukes, M., and Bundy, D. A. (2002). Assessing intellectual potential in rural Tanzanian school children. Intelligence, 30, 141-162.

Uganda

IQ: 73

Age: 11

N: 2,019

Test: RPM

Ref: Heyneman, S. P. and Jamison, D. T. (1980). Student learning in Uganda. Comparative Education Review, 24, 207-220.

Ethiopia

IQ: 64

Studies: 2

IQ: 65

Age: 15

N: 250

Test: SPM

Ref: Lynn, R. (1994). The intelligence of Ethiopian immigrant and Israeli adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 29, 55-56.

IQ: 63

Age: 14-16

N: -

Test: SPM

Ref: Kazulin, A. (1998). Profiles of immigrant students' cognitive performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 1311-1314.

SOUTHERN AFRICA

Botswana

IQ: 76

Studies: 2

IQ: 77 (366)

Age: 15

N: 5,150

Test: TIMSS 2003

Ref: Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Chrostowski, S.J. (Eds.) (2004). TIMSS 2003 Technical Report. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

IQ: 75 (330)

Age: 15

N: 4,768

Test: IEA-R 1991

Ref: Elley, W. B. (1992). How in the world do students read? The Hague: IEA.

TIMSS sum: 396

TIMSS+PIRLS sum: 398

Sum: 391

Mozambique

IQ: 62

Studies: 2

IQ: 64

Age: 20

N: 149

Test: CPM

Ref: Kendall, I. M. (1976). The predictive validity of a possible alternative to the Classification Test Battery. Psychologia Africana, 16, 131-146.

IQ: 60

ISAMS: 24 (60)

South Africa (blacks)

IQ: 67

Studies: 13

IQ: 63

Age: 9

N: 350

Test: SPM

Ref: Lynn, R. and Holmshaw, M. (1990). Black-white differences in reaction times and intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 18, 299-308.

IQ: 67

Age: 8-10

N: 806

Test: CPM

Ref: Jinabhai, C. C., Taylor, M., Rangongo, N. J., Mkhize, S., Anderson, S., Pillay, B. J., and Sullivan, K. R. (2004). Investigating the mental abilities of rural primary school children in South Africa. Ethnicity and Health, 9, 17-36.

IQ: 67

Age: 14-17

N: 152

Test: WISC-R

Ref: Skuy, M., Schutte, E., Fridjhon, P., and O'Carroll, S. (2001). Suitability of published neuropsychological test norms for urban African secondary school students in South Africa. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1413-1425.

IQ: 65

Age: 10-12

N: 293

Test: AAB

Ref: Fick, M. L. (1929). Intelligence test results of poor white, native (Zulu), colored, and Indian school children and the social and educational implications. South Africa Journal of Science, 26, 904-920.

IQ: 75

Age: 8-16

N: 1,008

Test: SPM

Ref: Notcutt, B. (1950). The measurement of Zulu intelligence. Journal of Social Research, 1, 195-206.

IQ: 69

Age: Adults

N: 153

Test: WAIS-R

Ref: Nell, V. (2000). Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 703

Test: SPM

Ref: Notcutt, B. (1950). The measurement of Zulu intelligence. Journal of Social Research, 1, 195-206.

IQ: 71

Age: Adults

N: 140

Test: WISC-R

Ref: Avenant, T. J. (1988). The Establishment of an Individual Intelligence Scale for Adult South Africans. Report No. P-91. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council.

IQ: 68

Age: 15-16

N: 1,093

Test: JAT

Ref: Lynn, R., and Owen, K. (1994). Spearman's hypothesis and test score differences between whites, Indians and blacks in South Africa. Journal of General Psychology, 121, 27-36.

IQ: 63

Age: 16

N: 1,096

Test: SPM

Ref: Owen, K. (1992). The suitability of Raven's Progressive Matrices for various groups in South Africa. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 149-159.

IQ: 64 (259)

Age: 16

N: 8,146

Test: TIMSS 1999

Ref: Martin, M. O., Gregory, K. D., & Stemler, S. E. (Eds.) (2000). TIMSS Technical Report: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study at the Eighth Grade (Boston, Intrenational study Center, Boston College).

IQ: 63 (254)

Age: 15

N: 8,952

Test: TIMSS 2003

Ref: Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Chrostowski, S.J. (Eds.) (2004). TIMSS 2003 Technical Report. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

IQ: 69

TIMSS 1995: 270

TIMSS 1999: 259 (64)

TIMSS 2003: 254 (63)

TIMSS sum: 304

TIMSS+PIRLS sum: 328

Sum: 324

Swaziland

IQ: 64

ISAMS: 32 (64)

Zambia

IQ: 71

Studies: 2

IQ: 77

Age: 13

N: 759

Test: SPM

Ref: MacArthur, R. S., Irvine, S. H., and Brimble, A. R. (1964). The Northern Rhodesia Mental Ability Survey. Lusaka: Rhodes Livingstone Institute.

IQ: 64

Age: Adults

N: 152

Test: SPM

Ref: Pons, A. L. (1974). Administration of tests outside the cultures of their origin. 26th Congress of the South African Psychological Association.

Zimbabwe

IQ: 70

Studies: 3

IQ: 61

Age: 12-14

N: 204

Test: WISC-R

Ref: Zindi, F. (1994). Differences in psychometric performance. The Psychologist, 7, 549-552.

IQ: 70

Age: 12-14

N: 204

Test: SPM

Ref: Zindi, F. (1994). Differences in psychometric performance. The Psychologist, 7, 549-552.

IQ: 76 (372)

Age: 16

N: 2,749

Test: IEA-R 1991

Ref: Elley, W. B. (1992). How in the world do students read? The Hague: IEA.

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